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What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). Glucose backs up in the bloodstream — causing one’s blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high.

There are two major types of diabetes. In type 1 (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent) diabetes, the body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that enables the body to use glucose found in foods for energy. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections. This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can occur at any age.

Type 2 (formerly called adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent) diabetes occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (insulin resistance). This form of diabetes is usually found in people who are over 40, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly occurring in younger people, particularly adolescents. View this Animation

How do people know if they have diabetes?

People with diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include:

excessive thirst
frequent urination
weight loss
increased hunger
blurry vision
tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
frequent skin, bladder or gum infections
wounds that don't heal
extreme unexplained fatigue

In some cases, there are no symptoms — this happens at times with type 2 diabetes. In this case, people can live for months, even years without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized.

Who gets diabetes?

Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are somewhat more likely to develop it. Other risk factors include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop diabetes, although the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adolescents is growing. Diabetes is more common among Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Also, people who develop diabetes while pregnant (a condition called gestational diabetes) are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

Diabetes is diagnosed with a simple blood test. Ideally, you should have a blood test for diabetes every year at your annual medical exam if you are at risk. Risk factors include a family history of diabetes, being African American, Latino/Hispanic American, Asian American, Native American or Pacific Islander, or have a history of gestational diabetes.

What is a diabetes consultation?

Diabetes is a chronic condition that requires ongoing management to help prevent serious complications from developing. During a diabetes consultation appointment, patients will learn about their disease and the treatment options that are available to help them manage their blood sugar levels as effectively as possible, as well as understanding how diabetes can affect their overall health. Information about diet, exercise, weight loss, insulin and other issues will be discussed to help create a treatment plan based on each patient's needs that will evolve as the needs of the patient change over time.

How is diabetes treated?

There are certain things that everyone who has diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2, needs to do to be healthy. They need to have a meal (eating) plan. They need to pay attention to how much physical activity they engage in; physical activity can help the body use insulin better so it can convert glucose into energy for cells. Everyone with type 1 diabetes, and some people with type 2 diabetes, also need to take insulin injections. Some people with type 2 diabetes take pills called "oral agents" which help their bodies produce more insulin and/or use the insulin it is producing better. Some people with type 2 diabetes can manage their disease without medication by appropriate meal planning and adequate physical activity.

Everyone who has diabetes should be seen at least once every six months by a diabetes specialist. He or she should also be seen periodically by other members of a diabetes treatment team, including a diabetes nurse educator, and a dietitian who will help develop a meal plan for the individual. Ideally, one should also see an exercise physiologist for help in developing a physical activity plan, and, perhaps, a social worker, psychologist or other mental health professional for help with the stresses and challenges of living with a chronic disease. Everyone who has diabetes should have regular eye exams (once a year) by an ophthalmologist to make sure that any eye problems associated with diabetes are caught early on and are treated before they become serious.

Also, people with diabetes need to learn how to monitor their blood glucose. Daily testing will help determine how well their meal plan, activity plan, and medication are working to keep blood glucose levels in a normal range. The diabetes educators at the Alliance In Health Diabetes Center can help!

What can you do to take control of your diabetes?

• Make healthy food choices; eat smaller portions and less fat, and spread carbohydrates (bread, fruit, milk) throughout the day.

• If you are overweight, try to lose some weight so you can better use insulin.

• See a dietitian for a meal plan that works for you.

• Increase physical activity. Aim for 30 minutes every day.

• Take medications as prescribed. Most people with type 2 diabetes need several medicines to control blood glucose; those with type 1 diabetes must take insulin.

• Check blood glucose regularly and discuss the results with your healthcare team.

What other problems can diabetes cause?

Your healthcare team will encourage you to follow your meal plan and exercise program, use your medications and monitor your blood glucose regularly to keep your blood glucose in as normal a range as possible as much of the time as possible. Why is this so important? Because poorly managed diabetes can lead to a host of long-term complications — among these are heart attack, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, and blood vessel disease that may require an amputation, nerve damage, and impotence in men. View this Animation

Thankfully, a nationwide study completed over a 10-year period showed that if people keep their blood glucose as close to normal as possible, they can reduce their risk of developing some of these complications by 50 percent or more!

How can you prevent diabetes complications?

Discuss your glucose monitoring, A1C, blood pressure and lipid results with your healthcare provider.
Take your diabetes, blood pressure and lipid medications as prescribed.
Have an annual dilated eye exam to prevent vision loss.
Have an annual microalbumin urine test to check for kidney problems.
Check your feet daily for cracks, sores and redness and report problems to your healthcare provider.
Always have with you treatment for low blood glucose if you take medication that lowers your blood glucose.
Stop smoking to prevent heart, eye and kidney disease.
Get a flu shot every year.
Wear medical identification in case of an emergency.
Keep appointments with your provider.
See your dentist twice a year.

Can diabetes be prevented?

Researchers hope to find one day find a cure for diabtes.Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, yet we still do not understand it completely. Recent research does suggest, however, that there are some things one can do to prevent this form of diabetes. Studies show that lifestyle changes can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in those adults who are at high risk of getting the disease. Modest weight loss (5-10% of body weight) and moderate physical activity (30 minutes a day) are recommended goals.

Schedule a Consultation Today!

If you would like to learn more about our customized diabetes treatment plans to best control your blood sugars offered at our practice, please contact us. Our friendly staff will be happy to answer any of your questions and help you schedule a consultation.

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